The levels of anti-HPV16/18 and anti-HPV31/33/35/45/52/58 antibodies among AS04-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccinated and non-vaccinated Ugandan girls aged 10–16 years

Miriam Nakalembe1*, Cecily Banura2, Proscovia B Namujju34 and Florence M Mirembe1



Data on Human Papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine immune response in sub-Saharan Africa is still sparse yet such knowledge is critical for optimal implementation and monitoring of HPV vaccines. Our primary objective was to evaluate levels of anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies and six other ‘high risk’ HPV (hrHPV) types among the vaccinated and unvaccinated Ugandan girls.


We conducted a cross sectional study among AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccinated and unvaccinated school girls aged 10–16 years in Western Uganda using purposive sampling. The vaccinated girls were at 18 months post vaccination. After consenting and assenting, data was collected using interviewer administered questionnaires for demographics and sexual history. Blood was drawn from which serum samples were analysed by the multiplex HPV serology technology to determine anti-HPV antibody levels to HPV-16/18 and six other hrHPV types (31, 33, 35, 45, 52 and 58). The antibody levels were expressed as Median Fluorescent Intensity (MFI).

A total of 207 vaccinated [mean age 13.1 years (SD 1.5); range 10-16 years] and 197 unvaccinated girls [mean age 13.6 years (SD 1.3); range 10-16 years] participated in the study. Sexual activity was self reported among 14/207 (6.8%) vaccinated and 5/197 (2.5%) unvaccinated girls. The MFI levels for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were 15 and 20 times higher respectively in the vaccinated girls than in the unvaccinated girls. HPV-16 mean MFI level was 4691(SD 1812; 95% CI: 4438-4958) among the vaccinated compared to 218 (SD 685; 95% CI: 190-252) among the unvaccinated girls. For HPV-18 the mean MFI level was 1615 (SD 1326; 95% CI: 1470-1776) among the vaccinated compared to MFI 103 (SD 506; 95% CI: 88 -121) among unvaccinated girls.

In addition antibody levels to non vaccine hrHPV types (31, 33, 35, 45, 52 and 58) were all significantly higher in the vaccinated group than in the unvaccinated group (p<0.01).


The AS04-Adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccinated girls showed a higher level of antibodies to HPV-16/18 and other non-vaccine hrHPV types compared to the unvaccinated girls. This may translate into protection against HPV-16/18 and other hrHPV types.

Read the entire paper here.

© 2014 Nakalembe et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.


  1. melodierose47 says:

    Dear all damage victims,
    My daughter having the 3rd shot at 13 is now 17. She has been suffering with back pain aka fibromyalgia symtoms and chronic fatigue. Cords in fingers, legs, toes. She has recently developed a painful ganglia between her first and second finger. Two days ago I received a hair analysis report (I wish I had done it sooner). Her cooper level is off the graft chart along with calcium. The high cooper level causes the calcium to be in the soft tissue (outside the bone and teeth) which is causing her pain. Now I’m on the search for a way to detox the cooper or how to balance her system so the excess cooper and the calcium with be eliminated. If you read about high cooper levels in the body it could explain a lot of the symptoms the HPV victims are having. (only a guess) The company I used was for the hair analysis. The report comes with a full report of results and what to eat and not to eat. After reading the report I say everyone with health concerns should get this done.
    I hope this helps someone.

  2. Hello. I am the mother of spanish Zuriñe. My daughter also has high standards of copper in blood. Values that no one can explain why all like the disease deposit me this mineral is Wilson’s disease and to discard a molecular analytical the DNA.
    They have given you any explanation for this?
    it could happen to any report to me through email?
    Thank you and kill you all!

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