We report an unusual case of cerebellar metastasis from a cervical adenosquamous carcinoma in which molecular techniques assisted in establishing the correct diagnosis. The patient was a 43-year-old woman with surgically unresectable cervical carcinoma diagnosed 2 years before presenting with neurological symptoms. A magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a large, enhancing cerebellar lesion with significant brain stem compression. The excised cerebellar tumor resembled a small cell carcinoma and was initially not thought to be a metastasis from the cervical adenosquamous carcinoma. In situ hybridization with catalyzed signal amplification and polymerase chain reactions with primers specific for human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 were used to determine the relationship between the cervical and the cerebellar neoplasms. A positive signal was present in the nuclei of both neoplasms by in situ hybridization using HPV16/18 DNA probes. Polymerase chain reaction revealed the presence of HPV-18 DNA sequences in the cervical and cerebellar neoplasms confirming that the cerebellar neoplasm was a metastasis from the cervical primary.