Authors: Barbara Mora, Felipe M. Benavente, Carmen G. Ili, and Pricilla Brebi
Cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer in women worldwide. Although 99.7% of cases are attributed to a previous infection by Human papillomavirus, a small percentage of the infected women progress to cervical cancer, suggesting the existence of different risk factors involved in the development and progression of this pathology. Genetic variability related to the host immune system could play an important role in the defense response to Human papillomavirus and therefore to the probability of developing cervical cancer. Worldwide, several international studies have reported that some genetic variations in the immune system, such as polymorphisms in genes HLA, CTLA-4, MTHFR, Tp53 and receptors of natural killer cells are associated with susceptibility to cervical cancer, although these variations can also play a protective role depending on the study population. The role of the genetic factors of the host cell is an important factor in the progression of cervical cancer.
Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most frequent cancer in women worldwide with more than 529,000 new diagnosed cases and 275,000 deaths every year . More than 80% of deaths by CC are recorded in developing countries . Epidemiologists have established an etiological association between CC and Human papillomavirus (HPV) , as 99.7% of cases of CC are attributed to a previous infection by HPV . Despite many women are infected with HPV, only a small percentage develops the neoplasia . Therefore, it must be considered several different risk factors involved in the development and progression of this tumor, and the genetic variability of the host cell being proposed as one of the most influential . Mutations and polymorphisms may cause a genetic imbalance in the woman, making her more or less susceptible to the development and progression of the disease. The aim of this review is to present the genetic susceptibility factors, mainly about the immune system, for the development of CC.